Greg Howick

Greg Howick
Senior Aquatic Ecologist
Email Greg
P: 816-822-3845

316(b) Services

316(b) Services

How do the fish see your cooling water intake?

New Clean Water Act regulations will take effect soon. Be ready.

Trust Burns & McDonnell to evaluate your facility and determine the most cost-effective solution to get you in compliance.

Read more in our newsletter about the latest EPA version of 316(b) rules >

The Burns & McDonnell 316(b) team includes environmental and facility experts with only one focus: to find the best solution for you. We have the knowledge and experience to give you a seamless, immediate solution to your unique issues.

Case Studies: Customized Section 316(b) Solutions

Wisconsin Public Service Corp.
To ensure cost-effective compliance at five power generation facilities in Wisconsin, New York and Pennsylvania, Burns & McDonnell evaluated options for each site individually. Solutions: a study demonstrated that new units with closed-cycle cooling systems will reduce overall intake flow enough to make modifications unnecessary; a cooling system change will reduce the intake rate to less than 50 million gallons per day, making it no longer subject to 316(b) rules; a comparative analysis of historical fisheries data and impingement/entrainment studies demonstrated that new studies were unnecessary; and studies to determine impingement and entrainment levels.

Peabody Energy
As part of the 316(b) compliance documentation submitted with the Prairie State Generating Station's discharge permit application, Burns & McDonnell prepared the Source Water Baseline Biological Characterization. Historical studies, online databases and fish reference books were used to generate the necessary data and identifications. Analysis of the data and the intake design showed that few species would be susceptible to impingement and entrainment. The study was accepted by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and the facility has been approved for construction.

Associated Electric Cooperative
Burns & McDonnell is performing impingement monitoring at three Missouri electric generating stations. Work includes collecting debris and fish caught in the screen wash. Fish are identified, enumerated and measured; the data will be used to estimate the facilities' calculation baseline and will help evaluate the best available technology to minimize impingement mortality at each site. Burns & McDonnell is also performing fisheries studies on source water, including quantitatively characterizing the fish communities through day and night electrofishing and seining seasonally. This data will assist in estimating the facilities' calculation baseline.


  • Electrofishing (boat and backpack)
  • Seining
  • Hoop netting
  • Gill netting
  • Larval fish collecting
  • Single-beam sonar
  • Impingement and entrainment studies
  • Source water biological characterization
  • Feasibility and cost/benefit analysis
  • Facility water balance determination
  • Intake design
  • Intake zone of hydraulic influence
  • Cooling system design
  • Fish handling or barrier system design
  • Bathymetric mapping
  • Aquatic restoration