Greg Howick

Greg Howick
Senior Aquatic Ecologist
Email Greg
P: 816-822-3845

316(a) Services

316(a) Services

The heat is on. As temperatures increase, so does scrutiny of thermal discharges. Is your plant's 316(a) study up-to-date?

Burns & McDonnell can help you verify compliance, protect aquatic life, and keep your plant online.

Know Where You Stand — and How To Adapt

Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act permits variances from state water quality temperature standards if the variance will "... assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of shellfish, fish and wildlife in and on the body of water into which the discharge is to be made."

Burns & McDonnell has the scientific expertise to determine if thermal discharges comply with state water-quality standards, and the regulatory experience to help you justify a variance if necessary.

  • In situ 3-D temperature measuring
  • Global Positioning System with real-time differential correction (DGPS)
  • Integrated single-beam sonar and DGPS
  • Electrofishing (boat and backpack)
  • Seining
  • Trap netting (hoop and fyke)
  • Drift netting
  • Plankton tow netting
  • Ponar and Ekman dredge sampling
  • Surber (or equivalent) sampling
  • Discharge plume mapping
  • Discharge plume modeling (CORMIX)
  • Bathymetric mapping
  • Critical low flow (e.g., 7Q10) determination
  • Receiving stream cross-section analysis
  • Fish; ichthyoplankton
  • Benthic macroinvertebrates
  • Zooplankton; phytoplankton
  • Periphyton
  • Macrophytes